In recent years, there are many people suffering from ADHD. Not only the children but also the adults do have chance to be sick with ADHD. Following is some useful information of the ADHD patients at all ages.
1. ADHD in preschoolers
The percent of infants appears to have the symptoms of ADHD as irritability, over activity or hyperarousal is 10 percent and only half of them receive the cure from parents and society. In addition, the clinicians are not diagnosed ADHD in this early period of lifespan. The overactive and temperamental infant is more likely to become the hyperactive and difficult preschoolers.
Poor concentration, high levels of activity and impulsiveness are the significant characteristics of the preschooler children. Their attention is captured by things that interest them but only for a short period of time and shift quickly from one activity to another. Even so, the children with ADHD are still out-standing. Those kids often draw poor intensity of play and excessive motor restlessness. They may exhibit hyperactivity and disruptive behavior out of frustration arising from their inability to communicate. Associated with difficulties as delayed development or oppositional behavior, poor social skills may be also presented. Nearly half of these continue to undergo behavioral problems by school age and nearly one-third receive a diagnosis of ADHD.
The parents of ADHD preschoolers often describe themselves as exhausted by their children. The positive reinforcement and punishment does not work effectively in these cases. The parents may try to discipline their kids and teach appropriate behavior but the youngsters learn nothing. Teachers of these young ADHD patients are always frustrated. Disruptive behavior especially aggression toward their friends become the serious concern for the teacher. Parents often search for other school with the hope to handle their child’s problems. Nevertheless, they rarely find out and often end up relying on the goof races of another preschool director or teacher who is willing to give their children a second chance.
Medication is believed to be the most effective treatments. However, the professionals say that the young children are more sensitive than the older in terms of methylphenidate. Hence, decision whether to use medication or not should be from both family and doctor.
2. Middle childhood
The expression of the ADHD children at this age draws a lot of the specialist’s attention by its significance. The kids with inattentive but not hyperactive often leave the toothpaste uncovered in the bathroom, games started but unfinished or bed unmade. More seriously, hyperactivity and impulsivity are also present, the expressions become more considerable: the broken toys, shopping trips or sibling conflicts. The children in these years are in danger for the academic failure. They have more possibility to repeat grade, get special education programs or receive academic tutoring. The daily routine is also an issue. Many children have poor sleep pattern in terms of time, as a result, the daily behavior appears to be worse. The strange sleeping time of the children makes their parents exhausted and the family relationships may be harmed even break down. Indirectly, they upset and show oppositional or aggressive behavior.
The pressure from academic frustration and failure, social rejection and criticism from parents and teachers causes the disorder related to ADHD. Oppositional disorder and non-complaint behavior appears in 60% of these children. Half of ADHD patients at these ages build up more serious behavior disorder called conduct disorder (CD). The children with ADHD are frequently seen as different as classmates. Although they have more chance to success by the assistance of their teacher, they often undergo the academic failure, rejection by friends and low self-esteem. The young patients are influenced by co morbid problems as learning burden. Besides, the genes, nutrition and food or the surrounding environment are also the main causes for this sickness.
An important matter from middle childhood children is limited attention given to sibling relationship in family with ADHD children, especially at this stage because the very young ADHD brothers/sisters draw almost attention of parents and they only get some. 10 per 13 siblings think that they are adverse affected when living with sisters or brothers. The children tend to have to disruption caused by their sibling behaviors. Emotional and social immaturity, academic underachievement, physical and verbal aggression, family conflicts or poor relationships with surrounding is some outstanding examples for the disruptive behaviors of the ADHD siblings. They undergo ignorance from parents and often wish for the normal life with peace and love. Furthermore, the ADHD symptoms and consequent disruption make them anxious, worried and sad.
The methods of intervention for those patients can be parent training, teacher training, academic interventions and medication. An effective training program for the parents of those kids is the Barkley’s parent training. Barkley is Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. At school, the children with ADHD need the assistance from the classroom as instructional opportunities, so they can meet the academic demands of school. The classroom intervention relies on the symptoms of the child. For instance, the child gets trouble drawing attention and making effort; the teacher can use shorter assignments or give them the break time during the lesson. The psychiatrist and medication are also of help for ADHD treatments. The combination of medication and behavioral treatment is more beneficial for the symptoms when compared to medication alone or behavioral alone.
4/5 of the children suffered from ADHD in middle childhood continue to have the symptoms of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. The patients diagnosed from middle childhood have higher rates of disruptive and non-disruptive problems including anxiety, depression, optional behavior and school failure. In particular, the teens with DC (more serious defiance associated with running away, truancy, lying or stealing) have higher rate of substance abuse. What’s more, researchers have informed that genetic component is another cause of ADHD. ADHD is a brain-based disorder and the symptoms are linked closely many brain areas.
At this age, the problems of ADHD children, parents and teachers become more serious than in the middle childhood. The ADHD teens have more teachers to cope with, more work to be responsible for more activities to participate then they tend not to be as closely supervised by the teachers and parents as before. The worst issue is the learning and communication problems. The researchers have indicated that more than 30% of the youth with ADHD have learning disorders. The requirement of the middle and high school additionally stress on teens so the parents should notice their child’s academic performance and care for even the minor changes or decrease in performance. Communication disorders are the trouble in not only speech but also the understanding language and expression ability. The family should contact the school and consult a speech pathologist for an evaluation. Substance use and abuse is other attentive concern. 12-24% is the number of the substance risk among adolescents with ADHD.
Symptoms of substance use in teens may include changes in eyes or face, mood changes, deceitful or secretive behaviors or decreased academic results,…Some other matters are anxiety disorders, mood disorders or sleep disturbance.
At the same time, their teachers have hundreds of kid to look after so the ADHD patients often get lost in the shuffle. Parents also meet the challenging on raising an adolescent with ADHD. There are more conflicts between ADHD children and their parents as other members of family. Johnston and Mash in their studies have claimed that the ADHD child appearance is the root of disrupted parent-child relationship, decrease in parent effectiveness and increase levels of parental anxiety.
The early detection and treatment are crucial to address symptoms and prevent problems as depression, anxiety and substance abuse. The American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry have proclaimed the behavioral interventions that can help teens manage the symptoms. They are ADHD Summer Camps; ADHD schools; Individual, Group and Family Counseling. In particular, the ADHD summer camps and ADHD schools provide structured routines and individualized education plans tailored to each student’s learning styles and social skills. Nevertheless, the adolescents with ADHD appear to be a significant challenge for the doctors and counselors who treat them. The higher demands of school, social life and responsibilities along with the comorbid diagnoses increase (conduct disorder, anxiety, depression and learning problems) drive the healthcare professionals the mountain of obstacle. The ADHD are reluctant to accept medication treatments and adverse to other treatments as seeing a counselor and getting academic help.
The attention deficit disorder in adult is different from one in children and its symptoms are unique for each individual. First, adult with ADHD often have difficulty focusing and attending to daily and ordinary tasks. For example, they are easily distracted by sights or sounds, quickly shift from one activity to another or get bored suddenly. Symptoms are often overlooked because they are less weirdly disruptive then symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity. However in fact they are troublesome. The symptoms include extreme distractibility, poor listening skills or tendency to overlook details,…Impulsivity comes second. Suffering this symptom, the ADHD adults have burden in inhibiting behaviors, comments and responses. They often act without thinking or considering consequences and more seriously, they cannot stay patient. ADHD, in addition, can have to deal with hyper focus, disorganization and forgetfulness, emotional difficulties and hyperactivity or restlessness.
The burdens for the adults are significantly different from the younger ADHD. They are more likely to be sacked from employment and try many jobs before get a stable one. In the workplace, adults with ADHD undergo more interpersonal difficulties with employers and colleagues. Further issues are resulted from lateness, absenteeism, excessive errors and an inability to accomplish expected workloads. The social relationships of them are also arduous especially the love regularly ends with break-up. The drug and substance abuse is increased in adults with continuing symptoms. Additionally, their children are more likely to suffer this issue, which in turn is problem. If this issue is not solved completely, their children can lead to a cycle of difficulties.
It is said that medication is a tool not a cure for ADHD adults. The medication typically does little help to the symptoms of disorganization, poor time management, forgetfulness and distraction- the issues causing almost problems for many adults. As other group of age, adults with this condition need medication treatments as well as other therapies to prevent completely.
In conclusion, each age group has different ADHD with different symptoms, different causes and different treatments. The patients in general need the care from both family and society to stay healthy.